श्लोकोऽयं मह्यं रोचते – 40

गे
गेयं गीता नामसहस्रं
ध्येयं श्रीपतिरूपमजस्रम्
नेयं सज्जनसङ्गे चित्तम्
देयं दीनजनाय वित्तम्

geyam gétä nämasahasram dhyeyam çrépati rüpamajasram

neyam sajjjanasange cittam deyam dénajanäya ca vittam




The above verse is from Adi sankara’s Bhaja govindam.

The Bhagavad Gita and Sahasranama are to be chanted;
always the form of the Lord of Lakshmi is to be meditated upon;
the mind is to be led towards the company of the good;
wealth is to be shared with the needy.

गीता नामसहस्रम् – Bhagavat gita and sahsranama of the lord, गेयम् – should be chanted . श्रीपतिरूपम् – the form of the lord of lakshmi , अजस्रम् – constantly, ध्येयम्- should be meditated. चित्तम्- mind, सज्जनसङ्गे – towards the company of good people, नेयम्- should lead . च- and,
वित्तम् - wealth, दीनजनाय- to the needy, देयम् – given or shared.

poet- 6

कविः - 6
कालिदासः
पञ्चमहाकाव्येषु द्वयोः महाकाव्ययोः रचयिता कालिदासः। क्व कालिदासस्य महिमा क्व च मे अल्पामतिः एतदपि तस्य उपमया एव वर्णयितुम् इच्छामि, ‘प्रांशुलभ्ये फले उद्बाहुः वामनः इव’ इति । तथापि श्रीवेदान्तदेशीकाचार्येण उक्तप्रकारं ‘अमृतं यदि लभ्यते किं न गृह्येत मानवैः’ इति कालिदासस्य कीर्तिं कि़ञ्चित् इव लिखितुम् इच्छामि।
यद्यपि कालिदासस्य जन्मादि विषये सप्रमाणयु्क्तयः न लब्धाः तथापि संस्कृतसाहित्ये सर्वाधिकप्रसिद्धिप्राप्तः महाकविः स एव। तस्य महाकवेः रचनासु रघुवंशः, कुमारसंभवश्च इति द्वे महाकाव्ये अपि च अभिज्ञानशाकुन्तलम्, विक्रमोर्वश्यम्, मालविकाग्निमित्रमिति त्रीणि नाटकानि तथा मेघदूतः ऋतुसंहारः च इति द्वे खण्डकाव्ये। तस्य अतिसरलशैलीयुक्तचनाः अस्मान् मोहयन्ति।
‘उपमा कालिदासस्य’ इति प्रसिद्धा सूक्तिः तस्य उपमा प्राशस्त्यं प्रकटयति। रघुवंशमहाकाव्ये ‘संचारिणी दीपशिखेव रात्रौ’ इति पद्ये तस्य उत्कृष्टोपमाकौशलेन विस्मितवन्तः पण्डिताः दीपशिखा कालिदासः इति विरुदेन तं सम्मानितवन्तः।
तस्य रघुवंशमहाकाव्यस्य मङ्गलश्लोके कविः पार्वतीपरमेश्वरौ स्तौति। श्लोकश्च यथा –
‘वागर्थाविव संपृक्तौ वागर्थप्रतिपत्तये। जगतः पितरौ वन्दे पार्वतीपरमेश्वरौ’॥ देवी सरस्वती ज्ञानस्वरूपिणी, तां विहाय कालिदासः किमर्थं पार्वतीपरमेश्वरौ शब्दस्वरूपम् अर्थस्वरूपमिति वर्णयति?
उक्तञ्च वायवीयसंहितायाम् – ‘शब्दजातमशेषं तु दत्ते शर्वस्य वल्लभा । अर्थजातमशेषं तु दत्ते मुग्धेन्दुशेखरः’ ॥
तस्मात् शब्दाधिदेवता पार्वती तथा अर्थाधिपतिः परमेश्वरः इति कारणात् कविः कालिदासः वागर्थप्रतिपत्तये पार्वतीपरमेश्वरौ नमति। अनिर्वर्णनीयो हि तस्य वाक्विशेषः।

कालिदासस्य कीर्तयः श्रोतृणां कर्णेषु मधुनः धारां प्रवाहयति। तस्य वाग्विशेषेण तत्काव्यस्य नायकः नायिका च सजीवौ साकारौ एव अस्माकं पुरतः उपस्थितौ इव भवतः ।
अधरः किसलयरागः कोमलविटपानुकारिणौ बाहु।
कुसुममिव लोभनीयं यौवनमङ्गेषु सन्नद्धम् ॥
इयमधिक मनोज्ञा वल्कलेनापि तन्वी ।
किमिव हि मधुराणां मण्डनं नाकृतीनाम्॥

इति दुष्यन्तमुखात् आगतं शकुन्तलायाः वर्णनं न केवलं तस्याः सौन्दर्यं द्योतयति किन्तु कविकालिदासस्य अनुपमवर्णनसामर्थ्यं तस्य सरला शैलीं वाङ्माधुर्यं च प्रकाशयति।

कालिदासस्य कवित्वगुणाः अवर्णनीयाः। तस्य स्वाभाविकी प्रतिभा अऩुपमा। प्रसादगुणगुम्फिता तस्य शैली अतिमधुरा उत्कृष्टा च। स एव भारतीयसंस्कृतेः प्रतिनिधिः। सः अप्रतिमः कविः अस्माकं भारतदेशम् अलङ्कृतवान् इति विषये न कोऽपि सन्देहः।

Poet - 6
kAlidAsa

Please see the link below to know about the poet kAlidAsa.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K%C4%81lid%C4%81sa

श्लोकोऽयं मह्यं रोचते - 39

गृ

गृहिणी भगिनी तस्याः श्वशुरौ श्याल इत्यपि।
प्राणिनां कलिना सृष्टाः पञ्च प्राणा इमेऽपरे॥कलिविडम्बनम् - ४१॥

gṛhiṇī bhaginī tasyāḥ śvaśurau śyāla ityapi|
prāṇināṁ kalinā sṛṣṭāḥ pañca prāṇā ime'pare||41||

This verse was written by Sri Nilakantha Dikshita in Kalividambanam - a satire on social evils.

The wife, her sister, the parents-in-law and the brother-in-law are another set of five prana - vital airs, created by Kaliyuga (the kali era) for a householder other than the existing set of vital airs such as prana, apana etc.

शास्त्रं वदति -20

saastram speaks -20

यथा काष्ठमयो हस्ती यथा चर्ममयो मृगः ।
यः च विप्रो अनधीयानः त्रयः ते नाम बिभ्रति ॥ (2. 157)


yatä käñöa mayo hasté yatä carmamayo mrgaù

yaù ca vipro anadhéyänaù trayaù te näma bibhrati


The above sloka is from manu smrti.

An elephant made of wood, a deer made of leather and a Brahmin who has not learned the scriptures, these three carry the names but not the substance.

यथा-Like a, काष्ठमयो – wooden, हस्ती- elephant, यथा-like a, मृगः- deer, चर्ममयो-made of leather, यः अनधीयानः – an unlearned, विप्रः-brahmin, त्रयः ते- those three, नाम-name, बिभ्रति-carry.

A person cannot proclaim himself as a brahmin just because he is born into it. He should perform the deeds that are prescribed to him.

श्लोकोऽयं मह्यं रोचते – 38

गू
गूढोऽपि वपुषा राजन् धाम्ना लोकाभिभाविना ।
अंशुमानिव तन्वभ्रपटलच्छन्नविग्रहः ॥ (11, 6)

güòopi vapuñä räjan dhämnä lokäbhibhävinä

amçumäniva tanvabhrapatalachannavigrahaù


The above sloka is from BhAravi’s kirAtArjunIyam.

kirAtArjunIyam is one among the pancha mahakAvyams in Sanskrit. The plot of the kAvyam is taken from mahabharatha. The story deals with arjuna doing the penance to acquire the paashupatha astra from lord shiva. And lord shiva comes in the guise of a kiraata or hunter and gives the weapon to arjuna.

The present context is Indra pleased by the penance of arjuna meets him in the guise of a Brahmin. Here, the poet compares the brightness of the sun with the valor of Indra. Just as it is impossible for the clouds to cover the powerful rays of the sun similarly though Indra comes in the guise of a Brahmin his valor is clearly visible.

Indra, वपुषा- by his body, गूढोऽपि- though in a disguised form, तन्वभ्रपटलच्छन्नविग्रहः – covered by the clouds (तनु - thin, अभ्र- cloud, पटलच्छन्न-covered by the mass, विग्रहः-form) अंशुमान् इव – like the sun, धाम्ना – by the powerful rays, लोकाभिभाविना- widely spread all over the world.

श्लोकोऽयं मह्यं रोचते - 37

गु
गुहायां गेहे वा बहिरपि वने वाद्रिशिखरे
जले वा वह्नौ वा वसतु वसतेः किं वद फलम् ।
सदा यस्यैवान्तःकरणमपि शंभो तव पदे
स्थितं चेद्योगोऽसौ स च परमयोगी स च सुखी ॥ 12

guhäyäm gehe vä bahirapi vane vädriçikhare

jale vä vahnou vä vasatu vasateù kim phalam

sadä yasyaivävantaùkaranamapi çambho tava pade

sthitam cet yogosou sa ca paramayogé sa ca sukhé


The above verse is from Adi sankara’s ‘sivAnanda lahari’.

In the above sloka Adi sankara says that any place would be fine if one has bhakti towards Isvara. One need not search for forests or mountains to show his/her devotion towards the lord. Need not perform severe penance by standing in the water during winter and surrounded by scorching fire during summer. Instead one can meditate upon the supreme power in which ever condition (he lives), this is the very essence of penance & yoga.

गुहायाम् – In the cave, गेहे वा – or in the house,बहिरपि- outside, वने वा – in the forest, अद्रिशिखरे – on the top of the mountain, जले वा – inside the water, वह्नौ वा – or near the fire, वसतु – let a person live, वसतेः- of living , किम्- what is the, फलम् - purpose, वद – tell . सदा - always, यस्य – whose, अन्तःकरणम् – inner- self , अपि- also, शंभो - oh lord siva, तव – at your, पदे - feet, स्थितं चेत् –lie or surrender oneself (involved in meditation), असौ – that is, योगः - yoga , स च – he is, परमयोगी – best among the yogis, स च – He is, सुखी – the happiest person.

श्लोकोऽयं मह्यं रोचते - 36

ग्री
ग्रीवाभङ्गाभिरामं मुहुरनुपतति स्यन्दने बद्धदृष्टिः
पश्चार्धेन प्रविष्टः शरपतनभयाद्भूयसा पूर्वकायम्।
दर्भैरर्धावलीढैः श्रमविवृतमुखभ्रंशिभिः कीर्णवर्त्मा
पश्योदग्रप्लुतत्वाद्वियति बहुतरं स्तोकमुर्व्यां प्रयाति॥


gréväbhangäbhirämam muhuranupatati syandane badhadrñtiù

paçcärdhena praviñtaù çarapatanabhayät bhüyasä pürvakäyam

darbhairardhävaléòaiù çramavivrtamukhabhramçibhiù kérëavartma

paçyodagraplutatvät bahutaram stokamurvyäm prayäti



The above verse is from kAlidAsa’s drama abhignAna sAkunthalam.
The context here is: King Dushyanta with a bow and arrow in hand follows a deer.
Dushyanta describes the deer that is frightened by seeing him and the deer runs very fast to save his life.--- ‘The deer, while running, beautifully bends back his neck and casting his eyes often at the chariot. He shrinks the back portion of his body to the front half due to the fear of the fall of arrows. His mouth was filled with the dharbha grass. He ate only half of it and the remaining grass slipped from his mouth due to fatigue and the path was scattered with dharbha grass. He runs very fast because of which he jumps high and seems to travel more in the sky and runs very less on the earth.’

ग्रीवाभङ्गाभिरामं- neck is beautiful because of bending, अनुपतति- falls, मुहुः - again, स्यन्दने- in the chariot, बद्धदृष्टिः- casting his eyes, पूर्वकायम्- the front portion of the body , शरपतनभयाद्भूयसा- due to the fear of the fall of arrows (शर- arrow, पतन-fall, भयात्-fear ,भूयसा-again) पश्चार्धेन प्रविष्टः- the deer shrinks the back portion , अर्धावलीढैः – half eaten, दर्भैः –with the dharbha grasses,श्रम – due to fatigue,विवृत - opened, भ्रंशिभिः – falling from the, मुख – mouth, कीर्णवर्त्मा- spreads the path,and पश्य- see the deer, उदग्रप्लुतत्वात्- as he jumps high ,वियति –in the sky ,बहुतरं – travels more ,स्तोकम्- very less, उर्व्याम् – in the earth ,प्रयाति- runs.

The above verse gives a beautiful and true presentation of a deer fleeting in fear of a hunter pursuing him. This is a very simple scene but the narration makes us visualize the whole scene. And there are no words to describe the simple style of the author kAlidAsa. In the text kAvya prakAsa , this verse is illustrated as an example for bhayaanaka rasa.

श्लोकोऽयं मह्यं रोचते - 35

गी
गीर्देवतेति गरुडध्वजसुन्दरीति
शाकम्भरीति शशिशेखरवल्लभेति।
सृष्टिस्थिति प्रलयकेलिषु संस्थिता या
तस्यै नमस्त्रिभुवनैक गुरोस्तरुण्यै


The above sloka is from Adi sankara’s ‘kanaka dhaara stotram’.

Adi sankara says- ‘She is the goddess of knowledge. She is the beautiful lady of the lord who has garuda in his flag. She is decorated by vegetables. She is the beloved of the lord who bears moon on his head. She is involved in the act of creation, sustenance and destruction. I prostrate before the goddess who is worshipped by all the three worlds.’


गीर्देवतेति – The goddess of knowledge, सुन्दरीति- beautiful lady, गरुडध्वज – one who has garuda in his flag (lord mahavishnu), शाकम्भरीति – one who is decorated by vegetables, वल्लभेति – beloved of the , शशिशेखर- lord who bears the moon on his head (lord siva) , या – who is, संस्थिता- involved in the, सृष्टि – creation, स्थिति – sustenance, प्रलयकेलिषु - and in the act of destruction,
तस्यै नमः – my salutations to , गुरोस्तरुण्यै – that lady of the lord,
त्रिभुवनैक –of three worlds.

It is only that real entity Brahman (शुद्धचैतन्यम्) which appears as saraswati , lakshmi and pArvati and does the creation, protection and sustenance. Adi sankara states the same view in his work ‘soundaryalahari’-

गिरामाहुर्देवीं द्रुहिणगृहिणीमागमविदो
हरेः पत्नीं पद्मां हरसहचरीमद्रितनयाम्।
तुरिया कापि त्वं दुरधिगमनिस्सीममहिमा
महामाया विश्वं भ्रमयसि परब्रह्ममहिषि ॥

श्लोकोऽयं मह्यं रोचते - 34

गि
गिरौ मन्निवासे नरा येऽधिरूढा
स्तदा पर्वते राजते तेऽधिरूढाः ।
इतीव ब्रुवन्गऩ्धशैलाधिरूढः
स देवो मुदे मे सदा षण्मुखोऽस्तु ।।


The above sloka is from Adi sankara’s ‘subrahmanya bhujangam’.

Lord shanmukha, standing on the top of the sugandha hills says that whenever the devotees climb this hill they will be blessed with the same merits as climbing the king of mountains (kalilash). May the six- faced lord on the sugandha mountain bless me.

गन्धशैलाधिरूढः – the god shanmukha who resides on the ‘gandha (sandal wood) mountain , इति ब्रुवन् - says thus ----- ये नरा – those men, अधिरूढाः- climb, गिरौ – the mountain, मन्निवासे – which is my abode, (by climbing my mountain they are blessed with the same merits as climbing the mount kailash), तदा-then, ते अधिरूढाः – they have climbed ,इव –like , राजते पर्वते-silvery mountain that is kaliash,.
सः देवः- that lord, षण्मुखः – shanmukha (six faced lord), सदा- always, मुदे-be happy, मे अस्तु – with me.

It is believed that Lord subrahmanya has connection with serpents. If we see snake in our dreams then elders ask us to visit subrahmanya temple. In Karnataka there is a place called kukke subrahmanya, where poojas are performed to ward off the sarpa dosa.

Kanchi maha periyavaa said the following in one of his lectures – ‘Adi sankara has sung bhujangams on many gods. But when we think of bhujangam immediately we think of ‘subrahmanya bhujangam’
Probably to prove that subrahmanya himself is the bhujangam he wrote these slokas in the ‘chandas’ ‘bhujanga prayaatam’. The word ‘bhujangam’ means snake. ‘

वैराग्यशतकम् - 16

स्तनौ मांसग्रन्थी कनककलशावित्युपमितौ
मुखं श्लेष्मागारं तदपि च शशाङ्केन तुलितम्।
स्रवन्मूत्रक्लिन्नं करिवरशिरस्पर्धि जघनं
मुहुर्निन्द्यं रूपं कविजनविशेषैर्गुरु कृतम्॥

Poets tend to describe the human body, women in particular with eloquent similes. Bhartrhari condemns the poets and points out the true nature of a human body. He says it is a storehouse of all that is contemptible, yet poets add grandeur to them by praise.

Adi Sankara gives a more refined touch to this in his मोहमुद्गर
नारीस्तनभरनाभीदेशं दृष्ट्वा मा गा मोहावेश।
एतन्मांसवसादिविकारं मनसि विचिन्तय वारं वारम्॥

Repeatedly think of the parts that give rise to delusion as mere transformation of flesh.

श्लोकोऽयं मह्यं रोचते - 33

गा
गान्धर्वेण विवाहेन बह्वयो राजर्षिकन्यकाः ।
श्रूयन्ते परिणीतास्ताः पितृभिश्चाभिनन्दिताः ।। (3, 20)


The above sloka is from the third act of Abhignaana sAkuntalam of maha kavi kAlidAsa.

The context here is: Sakuntala is afflicted by love towards Dushyanta and at the same time she has the fear for elders. Dushyanta says the following words to her- “It is heard that the daughters of royal sages are married under the gAndharva form of marriage and they have also been approved by their fathers”.

बह्वयो –Many ; राजर्षिकन्यकाः – daughters of royal sages , परिणीताः – married under the , गान्धर्वेण- Gandharva form of, विवाहेन – marriage, श्रूयन्ते – heard. च – and , ताः – They are, अभिनन्दिताः – accepted , पितृभिः – by the fathers.

GAndharva is one of the eight forms of marriage recognized by the Hindu Law.

ब्राह्मो दैवस्तथैवार्षः प्राजापत्यस्तथासुरः ।
गान्धर्वो राक्षसश्चैव पैशाचश्चाष्टमोऽधमः ।।

Among these the voluntary union of the maiden and her lover is said to be the GAndharva form of marriage.

इच्छया अन्योन्यसंयोगः कन्यायश्च वरस्य च गान्धर्वः स तु विज्ञेयो ।

श्लोकोऽयं मह्यं रोचते – 32


गजभुजङ्गविहङ्गमबन्धनं शशिदिवाकरयोर्ग्रहपीडनम्।
मतिमतां च विलोक्य दरिद्रतां विधिरहो बलवानिति मे मतिः ।।

The above sloka is from Bhartrhari’s nIti satakam.

Seeing the bondage of elephants, of serpents and of birds, the affliction of the sun and the moon by the planets (Rahu and ketu) and the poverty of the intelligent men- my belief is that fate is powerful.

गज- elephant , भुजङ्ग – serpent , विहङ्गम – bird ,बन्धनं – bondage, शशि- of the moon, दिवाकरयोः – of the sun, ग्रहपीडनम् – afflicted by the planets, च - and , मतिमतां – of the intelligent people, दरिद्रतां – poverty, विलोक्य –seeing-, मे मतिः – my belief is , विधिः – fate is, बलवानिति – powerful.

शास्त्रं वदति- -19

Saastram speaks – 19

श्राद्धं पितृभ्यो न ददाति दैवतानि नार्चति।
सुहृन्मित्रं न लभते तमाहुर्मूढचेतसम् ।। 35

The above verse is from vidura nIti.

A person who does not perform the shraaddha karma for the ancestors, who does not worship the gods, does not possess noble minded friends is said to be a foolish person.

पितृभ्यो – To the ancestors, श्राद्धं - shraaddha , न ददाति – does not give , दैवतानि – the gods , नार्चति – does not worship , न लभते – does not have , सुहृन्मित्रं – good friends, तम् – he is , मूढचेतसम्- foolish minded , आहुः – is called.

श्लोकोऽयं मह्यं रोचते – 31

खे

खेलतां मनसि खेचराङ्गना-माननीय-मृदुवेणुनिस्वनैः ।
कानने किमपि नः कृपास्पदं कालमेघ-कलहोद्वहं महः ।। (3, 80)

The above sloka is from the third chapter of the text 'sri Krishna karnaAmrtam' of 'sri Leelasuka'.

Lord Krishna, with the melody of his flute, who is worshipped by the damsels, who is dark in colour like the clouds, who is the embodiment of compassion, whose form is unique and cannot be compared, play in our minds.

खेचराङ्गना – The damsels who are wandering in the sky, माननीय – worshipped by them, मृदु- melodious, वेणुनिस्वनैः- tune of the flute, कालमेघ-dark clouds, कलहोद्वहं – whose colour is compared to the colour of the clouds, कृपास्पदं- an embodiment of compassion, किमपि महः- a supreme entity, नः- in our, मनसि- mind , खेलताम् – play.

Bhattatri’s addition to Mahabharata

Narayana Bhattathiri is most famous for his wonderful work nArAyanIyam. It is a condensation of Srimad Bhagavatam. It describes the ten avatAras of Lord Vishnu. It contains 100 parts of 10 verses each with each of the set ending in a prayer to lord Guruvayurappan (Krishna) to remove his disease.

Not many people know that he has written a work in grammar called prakriyAsarvasva – which is also a rearrangement of the work of Panini. Melpathur Narayana Bhattathiri enjoyed the patronage of Veera Kerala Varma (1601-15), the ruler of Cochin and wrote the Veerakeralaprashasti in his name.

There is a story thus about Bhattathiri and a king (could be Veera Kerala Varma) – पुराणोतिहासश्रवणम् or listening to epics is ordained for kings. On one particular day the king had no one to read out mahAbhArata for him. So he went to a temple in search of somebody who could read devanagari letters, add them up and say in the form of a sloka. It is called kootti vashippadu in malayalam/tamil. He caught hold of someone and asked him to read. This person kept reading and at one point the king heard something which he had not heard before. When asked to read the sloka again, the king was even more confused. He questioned the person about the sloka. The person being none other than Bhattathiri explained, “you asked me to read. The word ‘kootti’ also meaning ‘to add’, I added my own sloka and read”.

भीमसेनागदारुद्धदुर्योधनवरूथिनी।
शिखा खल्वाटकस्येव कर्णमूलमिवागता॥

bhīmasena-gadā-ruddha-duryodhana-varūthinī|
śikhā khalvāṭakasyeva karṇamūlamivāgatā||

The army of duryodhana, being hit by bhIma’s gadA returned to karNa, just like the head of a bald person, for whom the hair is seen only near the ear (karNa).

Pronunciation (उच्चारणम्) - podcast 03

A podcast on vowels.

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A small correction to the podcast
The podcast states that hrasva 'e' and 'o' is found in one of the upanishhads. This is incorrect. In fact the mahAbhAshhya mentions that hrasva 'e' and 'o' is pronounced by the sAtyamugri and rANAyanIya shAkhAs of the sAmaveda, and nowhere else.

शास्त्रं वदति- 18

Saastram speaks – 18

शुभं वा यदि वा पापं द्वेष्यं वा यदि वा प्रियम्।
अपृष्टस्तस्य तद्ब्रूयाद्यस्य नेच्छेत्पराभवम् ।।

śubhaṁ vā yadi vā pāpaṁ dveṣyaṁ vā yadi vā priyam|
apṛṣṭastasya tadbrūyādyasya na icchet parābhavam||

The above sloka is from vidura nIti.

A concerned person, who is bothered by the downfall of the other person, should advise him without being asked and should always utter the truth whether it is good or bad, hateful or pleasant.

यदि – whether, शुभं – good, वा – or, पापं – bad, द्वेष्यं – hateful, वा – or, प्रियम् – pleasant, तस्य – To him, अपृष्टः – without being asked, तद्ब्रूयात् – truth has to be said, यस्य - whose, पराभवम्- downfall, न इच्छेत् – is not desired

वैराग्यशतकम् - 15

भिक्षाशनं तदपि नीरसमेकवारं
शय्या च भूः परिजनो निजदेहमात्रम्।
वस्त्रं विशीर्ण शतखण्डमयी च कन्था
हा हा तथापि विषया न परित्यजन्ति॥१५॥

bhikṣāśanaṁ tadapi nīrasamekavāraṁ
śayyā ca bhūḥ parijano nijadehamātram|
vastraṁ viśīrṇa śatakhaṇḍamayī ca kanthā
hā hā tathāpi viṣayā na parityajanti||15||

भिक्षाशनं – eating alms
तदपि – that too
नीरसमेकवारं – once without any taste
शय्या च भूः – the earth is bed
परिजनो – attendant is
निजदेहमात्रम् – his own body
वस्त्रं विशीर्ण – cloth is ragged
शतखण्डमयी च कन्था – and made up of hundreds of pieces
हा हा तथापि – Alas! Even then
विषया – material pleasures
न परित्यजन्ति – do not forsake

Food is got from begging and that too is tasteless and only once a day. The earth is the bed and one’s own body is one’s attendant. One may wear a ragged worn out cloth with a hundred patches; yet, alas! The desires do not leave me.

When one takes up the difficult practice of sannyAsa, there are strenuous practices that has to be followed. The body may get accustomed to all this; yet, forsaking material pleasures is the most difficult of all. Removing the desire from the mind is the toughest of all.

Pronunciation (उच्चारणम्) - podcast 02

The second podcast by Shri Dhananjay Vaidya dealing with pronunciation of consonants.

  • क ख ग घ ङ
  • च छ ज झ ञ
  • ट ठ ड ढ ण
  • त थ द ध न
  • प फ ब भ म


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Pronunciation (उच्चारणम्) - podcast 01

भारते भाष्यमाणानां भाषाणां वैविध्यहेतोः संस्कृतोच्चारणे काश्चन समस्याः वर्तन्ते। ताः प्रति संस्कृतसूच्यां श्रीधनञ्जयवैद्यवर्येण लिखितमासीत्। उच्चारणविषये लेखनापेक्षया भाषणमुचितमिति मनसिकृत्य धनञ्जयवर्येण कृतं पोड्कास्ट् अद्य प्रभृति आरभ्यते।

In Bharata we find many differences in samskrta pronunciation nationwide. Some of them have been discussed on the Sanskrit mailing list. Pronunciation is better understand when spoken than written. With this in mind, we have invited Shri Dhananjay Vaidya to do a series of podcasts addressing some of the issues.

A small intro about him in his own words -

Dhananjay Vaidya

"Although my profession by training is biomedical research, I have an amateur interest in Sanskrit grammar.
In my first podcast, I make the case that generally Sanskrit was taught from father to son. But in my own case, it was my mother's teaching. Under her tutelage I took a few introductory Sanskrit examinations as a child. Though I could not get their detailed guidance, two teachers pointed me the way when I began with Panini's grammar: Tengse Guruji, the chief of the Vaidik Pathashala at Kavle, Goa, and Acharya V. B. Bhagvat, the head of the Tilak Maharashtra Vidyapeeth, Pune, Maharashtra. Anything I know rightly is because these teachers put me on the correct path. All errors in my understanding come from faulty self-study of the texts."


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श्लोकोऽयं मह्यं रोचते - 30



खद्योतो द्योतते तावत् यावत् न उद्यते शशिः।
उदिते तु सहस्रांशे न खद्योतो न चन्द्रमाः॥

khadyoto dyotate yāvat tāvat na udyate śaśiḥ
udite tu sahasrāṁśe na khadyoto na candramāḥ

A fire-fly shines as long as the moon does not rise. When the thousand-rayed sun rises, there is neither fire-fly nor moon. As long as a superior being is unknown, the lesser effulgent being enjoys attention.

There is a proverb in tamil "ஆலில்லா ஊறுக்கு இருப்பைபப்பூ சர்க்கரை" "In the country where there is no sugarcane, the mahua flower is sugar".

श्लोकस्य मूलम्

Insights into Mahābhārata - 01

(A new series hoping to bring out lesser known incidents in Mahābhārata)

भीष्मद्रोणकृपाचार्याः राजसेवार्थं दुर्योधनपक्षे युद्धम् अकुरुतेति प्रसिद्धमेवैतत्। तस्मात् कारणात् अभिमन्युहनने एतादृशी घृणारहितता न दर्शयनीया खलु। तच्च धर्मविरुद्धमिति ते ज्ञातवन्त एव। तर्हि कथमेवम् अकुर्वन्निति पर्यालोचने किञ्चिदिव वनपर्वपठनम् आवश्यकम्।

घोषयात्रापर्वणि दुर्योधनः सैन्यैः सह मृगयायै तथा घोषावेक्षणाय च द्वैतवनम् अगच्छत्। गन्धमादनसरसः समीपस्थे वने आवासशिबिराणि स्थापयितुं दुर्योधनः सेनाग्रम् आदिदेश। गन्धर्वाणामिदं वनमिति कारणात् वनद्वारि एव तैः सह युद्धमारभत। गन्धर्वनृपतिः दुर्योधनं बन्धीकरोति स्म। कौरव्याः युधिष्ठिरस्य समीपं गत्वा स्वराजानं मोचयितुं प्रार्थयामासतुः। तेषां कृते अर्जुनः चित्रसेनं पराजित्य दुर्योधनं बन्धात् मोचयामास।

पराजयम् अर्जुनहस्तेन मोचनं च असहमानः सुयोधनः प्रायोपवेशाय उद्युक्तोऽभूत्। प्रायोपवेशात् तं पराङ्मुखीकर्तुं पातलस्थाः दैत्याः दानवाश्च होमं कृत्वा तम् आनाय्य तस्य निश्चयस्य मूढताम् आचक्षुः।

तदलं ते विषादेन भयं तव न विद्यते।
साह्यार्थं च हि ते वीराः संभूता भुवि दानवाः॥ (वनपर्वणि, घोषयात्रापर्वणि, १०)
भीष्मद्रोणकृपादींश्च प्रवेक्ष्यन्ति अपरे असुराः।
यैराविष्टा घृणां त्यक्त्वा योत्स्यन्ते तव वैरिभिः॥ (वनपर्वणि, घोषयात्रापर्वणि, ११)

It is usually said that Bhishma, Drona and Kripa fought on behalf of Duryodhana to show their gratitude to their king. But that does not warrant their inhuman and unscrupulous behavior during Abhimanyu’s killing. A little background study sheds light on their atypical conduct.

When the Pandavas were staying in the forest for 12 years, Duryodhana wanted to see their life, now without prosperity. He undertakes the responsibility of inspecting their cattle stations and includes a hunting expedition to dvaitavana. He decided to camp near lake gandhamādana with beautiful woods surrounding it. As these woods belonged to the Gandharva Chitrasena, there ensued a fight between the soldiers of Duryodhana and Gandharvas. Chitrasena took Duryodhana captive and later released him after being defeated by Arjuna.

Ashamed by the defeat at the hands of Chitrasena and his subsequent liberation by Arjuna, Duryodhana decides to commit suicide. Asuras from the nether world who wanted Duryodhana’s help in defeating devas performed a homa and brought Duryodhana to the nether world. They advise him on the stupidity of suicide. While trying to revert Duryodhana’s mind, they offer their services during war. They inform him that many asuras and rakshasas have been born in the Kshatriyas. They promise him that they would enter the bodies of Bhishma and others, thereby, making them merciless.

(Source: English translation
Sanskrit text Chowkambha Publications)

श्लोकोऽयं मह्यं रोचते – 29

क्ष
क्षुत्क्षामोऽपि जराकृशोऽपि शिथिलप्रायोऽपि कष्टां दशा-
मापऩ्नोऽपि विपन्नदीधितिरपि प्राणेषु ऩश्यत्स्वपि ।
मत्तेभेन्द्रविभिन्नकुम्भपिशितग्रासैकबद्धस्पृहः
किं जीर्णं तृणमत्ति मानमहतामग्रेसरः केसरी ।। ( नीतिशतकम् -21 )

kṣutkṣāmo'pi jarākṛśo'pi śithilaprāyo'pi kaṣṭāṁ daśām
āpanno'pi vipannadīdhitirapi prāṇeṣu naśyatsvapi|
mattebha-indra-vibhinna-kumbha-piśita-grāsaika-baddha-spṛhaḥ
kiṁ jīrṇaṁ tṛṇamatti mānamahatām agresaraḥ kesarī|| (nītiśatakam - 21)

क्षुधा क्षीणोऽपि, जरया कृशोऽपि, बलहीनोऽपि, आहारेण विना कष्टाम् अवस्थां प्राप्तोऽपि, नष्टकान्तिरपि, प्राणेषु नश्यत्स्वपि, मत्तगजपुंगवस्य कुम्भस्थलात् पिशिते मांसे एव सिंहस्य वाञ्छा अस्ति। तस्मिन् अवसरे अपि सः सिंहः न जीर्णं तृणं खादति। अभिमानोन्नतानां बुद्धिः न नीचवस्तूनि प्रवर्तते। प्राणात् मानमेव रक्षन्ति ते।

The above verse is from Bhartrhari’s nIti satakam .

Though a lion is emaciated by starvation, and reduced by old age, though it is almost completely enfeebled, though reduced to a wretched condition, though it has lost its bodily luster and it is about to die- still the leader of the jungle will have its longing fixed on the flesh from the broken forehead of a maddened elephant. Will it ever taste the dry grass?

क्षुत्क्षामोऽपि – emaciated because of hunger, जराकृशोऽपि – thin because of old, शिथिलप्रायोऽपि – though very weak, कष्टां – difficult , दशाम्- condition, आपन्नोऽपि- attained, विपऩ्नदिधितिरपि – lost its bodily luster, ऩश्यत्स्वपि – about to lose its, प्राणेषु – life,
(even at this condition) ग्रासैकबद्धस्पृहः- he has an attraction towards the , मत्तेभेन्द्रविभिन्नकुम्भपिशित – flesh broken from the forehead of a maddened elephant.
केसरी – lion, मानमहतामग्रेसरः - rich or great in pride, किं जीर्णं तृणमत्ति – will it eat the dry grass?

Here the poet beautifully explains with an example of the lion to put forward his view- People who are rich or great in pride will never degrade themselves even at the time of calamity. For them pride is important than life.

शास्त्रं वदति – 17

Saastram speaks -17

सा सभा यत्र न सन्ति वृद्धाः न ते वृद्धाः ये न वदन्ति धर्मम्।
नासौ धर्मो यत्र न सत्यमस्ति न तत्सत्यं यच्छलेनानुविद्धम् ।।


na sā sabha yatra na santi vṛddhāḥ na te vṛddhāḥ ye na vadanti dharmam|
nāsau dharmo yatra na satyamasti na tatsatyaṁ yacchalenānuviddham||

The above sloka is from vidura nIti.

That is not an assembly where there are no old men, and they are not old who do not declare the virtues or mortality, those are not virtues which are separated from the truth, that is not the truth which is loaded with deceit.

यत्र – where ,न सन्ति – are no, वृद्धाः – old people, सा – that ,न सभा – is not a court, ये – those, न वदन्ति- do not say, धर्मं – the virtues , ते – they, न वृद्धाः – not old people, यत्र – where, सत्यं – truth, न अस्ति – is not there, न असौ धर्मः – those are not the virtues, तत्- that is, न सत्यं – not the truth, यत्- which is, छलेन – with deceit , अनुविद्धम्- filled.

श्लोकोऽयं मह्यं रोचते -28

क्व
क्वचित्पृथ्वीशय्यः क्वचिदपि च पर्यङ्कशयनः
क्वचित्शाकाहारः क्वचिदपि च शाल्योदनरुचिः।
क्वचित्कन्थाधारी क्वचिदपि च दिव्याम्बरधरो
मनस्वी कार्यार्थी न गणयति दुःखं न च सुखम् ।। (नीतिशतकम् - 74)

kvacit pṛthvīśayyaḥ kvacidapi ca paryaṅkaśayanaḥ
kvacit śākāhāraḥ kvacidapi ca śālyodanaruciḥ|
kvacit kanthādhārī kvacidapi ca divyāmbaradharaḥ
manasvī kāryārthī na gaṇayati duḥkhaṁ na ca sukhaṁ|| (nītiśatakam - 74)

धीरः कार्यसाधनतत्परः क्वचित् काले भूमौ स्विपिति क्वचित् च पर्यङ्के। क्वचित् शाक एवाहारो क्वचित् च शाल्यान्ने रुचिः। क्वचित् जीर्णवस्त्राणि धारयति क्वचित् पीताम्बराणि च धारयति। कार्यनिमग्नः धीरः सुखं दुःखं च न गणयति। कार्यसाधनतत्परस्य सुखदुःखयोः समानावस्था एव भवति।

The above is the seventy fourth verse from Bhartrhari’s nItisatakam.

Here he has his bed on the floor, there on a bed made of soft mattress, here he lives only on vegetables, there he takes the feast prepared from the highest quality of rice, here he wears rags, there he wears the silk garments. The brave man, who has set his mind in achieving a goal, never bothers the pain or pleasure.

क्वचित् – In one place, पृथ्वीशय्यः - sleeps on the floor, क्वचिदपि च – In the other place, पर्यङ्कशयनः- sleeps on the bed. क्वचित्- In one place ,शाकाहारः – eats only the vegetables, क्वचिदपि च – In another place , शाल्योदनरुचिः – tasty food made of rice.
क्वचित् – In one place, कन्थाधारी- wears the torn clothes, क्वचिदपि च – In another place , दिव्याम्बरधरो- wears a silken garment. मनस्वी- brave man, कार्यार्थी- who is involved in achieving a goal, न गणयति – does not bother about, सुखम् – happiness च – and , न – not about, दुःखं – sorrow.

श्लोकोऽयं मह्यं रोचते -27

कः
कस्त्वं कोऽहं कुत आयातः का मे जननी को मे तातः ।
इति परिभावय सर्वमसारं विश्वं त्यक्त्वा स्वप्नविचारम् ।।

kastvaṁ ka'haṁ kuta āyātaḥ kā me jananī ko me tātaḥ|
iti paribhāvaya sarvamasāraṁ viśvaṁ tyaktvā svapnavicāram||

The above verse is from Adi sankara’s bhajagovindam.

Who are you? Who am I? From where did I come? Who is my mother? Who is my father? You enquire, renouncing the entire world of experiences which is essenceless and also a mere dream born out of imagination.

त्वं कः- who are you?, अहं कः – who am I, कुतः आयातः – From where did I come , मे जननी का- who is my mother?, मे तातः कः – who is my father?, असारं -essenceless, स्वप्नविचारं – born out of imagination, सर्वं- the entire, विश्वं - world, त्यक्त्वा - leaving, इति परिभावय- enquire.

The above sloka beautifully explains that how an individual should dismiss the thoughts from the worldly objects and also from the haunting passions of senses from the mind and turn the mind towards the enquiry of the inner self. Such continuous queries reveal the uncertainity of the world and the false pride of life we live in.

श्लोकोऽयं मह्यं रोचते – 26

कं
कंचन काञ्चीनिलयं करधृतकोदण्डबाणसृणिपाशं ।
कठिनस्तनभरनम्रं कैवल्यानन्दकन्दमवलम्बे ।। 3 ।।

kañcana kāñcīnilayaṁ karadhṛtakodaṇḍabāṇasṛṇipāśam|
kaṭhinastanabharanamraṁ kaivalyānandakandamavalambe||3||

The above is the third sloka of the Arya satakam of mUkapancasatI written by mUka kavi.

‘I seek the support of the goddess kAmAkshi, who is in the form of moksha, the ultimate bliss, who resides in kAnchIpuram, carries the bow, arrow, Ankusha and pAsha in her hands and stands in a slanting posture.’

काञ्चीनिलयं – resides in kAnchIpuram, करधृतकोदण्डबाणसृणिपाशं – holds the bow, arrow, hook and rope, कठिनस्तनभरनम्रं – in a slanting posture, कंचन- an entity, कैवल्यानन्दकन्दम् – which is in the form of moksha the ultimate bliss, अवलम्बे – I follow or seek support.

श्लोकोऽयं मह्यं रोचते – 25

कौ
कौमारमारभ्य गणाः गुणानां
हरन्ति ते दिक्षु धृताधिपत्यान् ।
सुराधिराजं सलिलाधिपं च
हुताशनं चार्यमनन्दनं च ।। ( 8, 58 )

kaumāramārabhya gaṇāḥ guṇānāṁ haranti te dikṣu dhutādhipatyān|
surādhirājaṁ salilādhipaṁ ca hutāśanaṁ cāryamanandanaṁ ca||

हे भैमि, बाल्यादारभ्य ते सौन्दर्यशीलत्वादीनां गुणानां गणाः देवेन्द्रादीन् हरन्ति। त्वत् गुणाकर्णनात् इन्द्राग्नियमवरुणाः इति चत्वारोऽपि त्वयि अनुरक्ताः भवन्ति।

The above is from the eighth canto of naishadIya charitam of srI harasha.

The context here is: Nala, as a messenger of gods, meets damayantI in her garden. He says, ‘O! damayantI since your childhood your virtues have attracted the lords of various directions – indra, varuNa, agni and yama.

O! damayantI , कौमारमारभ्य - from childhood , ते गुणानां गणाः – your qualities like good conduct etc., दिक्षु – direction, धृताधिपत्यान् – lords, हरन्ति – attracts the mind.
(who are the lords?) They are सुराधिराजं – indra, the king of the devas, सलिलाधिपं – varuNa, हुताशनं – agni , अर्यम्नः- of sUrya, नन्दनं- son yama.

वैराग्यशतकम् - 14

धन्यानां गिरिकन्दरेषु वसतां ज्योतिः परं ध्यायताम्
आनन्दाश्रुकणान् शकुना निःशङ्कमङ्केशयाः।
अस्माकं तु मनोरथोपरिचितप्रासादवापीतट-
क्रीडाकाननकेलिकौतुकजुषाम् आयुः परं क्षीयते॥१४॥

dhanyānāṁ girikandareṣu vasatāṁ jyotiḥ paraṁ dhyāyatām
ānandāśrukaṇān śakunā niḥśaṅkamaṅkeśayāḥ|
asmākaṁ tu manorathoparicitaprāsādavāpītaṭa-
krīḍākānanakelikautukajuṣām āyuḥ paraṁ kṣīyate||14||


धन्यानां – blessed
गिरिकन्दरेषु वसतां – those who live in the caves of mountains
ज्योतिः परं ध्यायताम् – meditating upon Brahman
आनन्दाश्रुकणान् – tears of bliss
शकुना – birds of prey
निःशङ्कमङ्केशयाः – fearlessly sitting on their laps
अस्माकं तु – but we
मनोरथ-उपरिचित – created by imagination
प्रासाद – palace
वापीतट – on the banks of pools
क्रीडाकानन – pleasure gardens
केलिकौतुकजुषाम् – excited to play
आयुः – life
परं क्षीयते – quickly lessens

The poet is still talking about how difficult it is to forsake the pleasures of the world. He compares the lives of the great with our lives.
Blessed indeed are those who meditate upon the Brahman. They are so engrossed in their thoughts that even birds of prey, which tend to fly high descend fearlessly and sit on their laps to drink the tears of joy that fall from their eyes.
But, our focus is entirely on the pleasures of life and do not realise that our life is fast ebbing away.

श्लोकोऽयं मह्यं रोचते – 24

को
को न याति वशं लोके मुखे पिण्डेन पूरितः।
मृदङ्गो मुखलेपेन करोति मधुरध्वनिम् ।।

ko na yāti vaśaṁ loke mukhe piṇḍena pūritaḥ|
mṛdaṅgo mukhalepena karoti madhuradhvanim||

Who cannot be flattered by food? A lump of food can calm down even the harshest of tongues.
Like, a mrdangam that gives melodious sound just by applying rice paste on both sides.

लोके – In this world, मुखे – on the face, पिण्डेन – with a lump of food, पूरितः – filled, को – who , वशं – flatter, न याति – does not become.
मुखलेपेन – By applying the rice paste on the heads, मृदङ्गो – mrdangam, मधुरध्वनिम् – melodious sound, करोति – does or gives.

श्लोकोऽयं मह्यं रोचते – 23

कै
कैवल्यदाय करुणारसकिङ्कराय कामाक्षि कन्दलितविभ्रमशंकराय ।
आलोकनाय तव भक्तशिवंकराय मातर्नमोऽस्तु परतन्त्रितशङ्कराय ।।

kaivalyadāya karuṇārasakiṅkarāya kāmākṣi kandalita-vibhrama-śaṅkarāya|
ālokanāya tava bhaktaśivaṅkarāya matarnamo'stu paratantritaśaṅkarāya||

The above is the forty seventh sloka of the katAksha satakam of mUka panchasatI.

O! mother kAmakshi your katAksha or your eye sight is full of compassion, bestows your devotees with all good things, guides them in the path of mukti or salvation. Your attractive glances make siva fall at your feet and make him always dependent on you. I offer my salutations to that katAksha or eye sight of yours.

मात- O! Mother , कामाक्षि – kAmAkshi, कैवल्यदाय – that gives mukti, करुणारस- compassion or daya ,किङ्कराय – servants, कन्दलितविभ्रमशंकराय – siva was attracted by the mere sight, (due to which) , परतन्त्रितशङ्कराय – siva is completely dependent on kAmAkshi. He lost his स्वातन्त्र्यं, भक्त – to the devotees, शिवंकराय – bestows the good, तव – to your , आलोकनाय – eye sight or katAksha, नमोऽस्तु – I offer my salutations.

वैराग्यशतकम् - 13

ब्रह्मज्ञानविवेकनिर्मलधियः कुर्वन्त्यहो दुष्करम्
यन्मुञ्चन्त्यपभोगभाञ्ज्यपि धनानि एकान्ततो निःस्पृहाः।
सम्प्राप्तान् न पुरा न सम्प्रति न च प्राप्तौ दृढप्रत्ययात्
वाढ्छामात्रपरिग्रहानपि परं त्यक्तुं न शक्ता वयम्॥१३॥

brahmajñāna-viveka-nirmala-dhiyaḥ kurvantyaho duṣkaraṁ
yanmuñcanti apabhoga-bhāñjyapi dhanāni ekāntato niḥspṛhāḥ|
saṁprāptān na purā na saṁprati na ca prāptau dṛḍhapratyayāt
vāñchāmātra-parigrahānapi paraṁ tyaktuṁ na śaktā vayam||13||

ब्रह्मज्ञान – knowledge of Brahman
विवेक – discrimination
निर्मल – pure
धियः – minds
कुर्वन्ति – do
अहो दुष्करम् – is indeed tough
यन्मुञ्चन्ति – that they forsake
उपभोगभाञ्ज्यपि – which bring enjoyment
धनानि – wealth
एकान्ततो – entirely
निःस्पृहाः – free from desire
सम्प्राप्तान् न – were not attained
पुरा – either earlier
न सम्प्रति – or now
प्राप्तौ दृढप्रत्ययात् – obtained by great effort
न च – do not seem to last
वाञ्छामात्रपरिग्रहानपि – although reaped by us as mere desires
परं त्यक्तुं न शक्ता वयम् – we are unable to leave the enjoyments.

It must indeed be a very difficult task for those, who have clear thinking owing to the discrimination arising out of brahmajnana, to be free from desires and discard wealth in its entirety. It is no wonder that we, who have reaped enjoyments by merely longing for it, having attained them neither before nor now, are unable to leave them. And even when we have obtained the enjoyments with great effort, they don’t seem to last in the future.

प्रेमस्वरूपः - 8

वामा देव्यो सकलभुवने ते भवन्त्यो भवन्तु
अस्माकं तन्निरवधिसुखस्यास्पदं वाञ्छितं यत्।
राधे राधे इति निगदिते स्तम्भतुल्या स्थितं तं
प्रेमापूर्णं नवजलधरश्यामलं देवमीडे॥

vāmā devyo sakalabhuvane te bhavantyo bhavantu
asmākaṁ tanniravadhikasukhasyāspadaṁ vāñchitaṁ yat|
rādhe rādhe iti nigadite stambhatulyā sthitaṁ taṁ
premāpūrṇaṁ navajaladharaśyāmalaṁ devamīḍe ||8||

वामा देव्यो – beautiful ladies
सकलभुवने – in the entire world
ते भवन्त्यो – have become yours
भवन्तु – Let them be!
अस्माकं वाञ्छितं यत् – our desire is
तन्निरवधिसुखस्यास्पदं – to have that recipient of limitless bliss
राधे राधे इति निगदिते – the mere mention of the word ‘RADHA’
स्तम्भतुल्या – like a pillar
स्थितं तं – who stands

There are many beautiful ladies of yours, let them be! My desire is that person who is the recipient of your love which is the ultimate bliss equal to brahmAnanda. I bow to that Krishna who stands frozen like a pillar upon the mere mention of the word ‘RADHA’.

प्रेमस्वरूपः - 7

आस्ये दृष्ट्वा निखिलजगतीं या त्वया सृष्टपूर्वा
किं स्वं पुत्रं सकलजगतः देव इत्यन्वभूत् सा।
कृत्वा थूत्कं त्रिदशपरिषदं प्रार्थयामास यस्मै
प्रेमापूर्णं नवजलधरश्यामलं देवमीडे॥७॥

āsye dṛṣṭvā nikhilajagatīṁ yā tvayā sṛṣṭapūrvā
kiṁ svaṁ putraṁ sakalajagataḥ deva ityanvabhūt sā|
kṛtvā thūtkaṁ tridaśapariṣadaṁ prārthayāmāsa yasmai
premāpūrṇaṁ navajaladharaśyāmalaṁ devamīḍe ||7||

आस्ये – in the mouth
दृष्ट्वा – after seeing
निखिलजगतीं – the entire
या त्वया सृष्टपूर्वा – which was created earlier by you
किं सा अन्वभूत् – did she realize/experience
स्वां पुत्रं – her son
सकलजगतः देव इति – to be the lord of the worlds
कृत्वा थूत्कं – she did “thu thu”
प्रार्थयामास – and prayed
त्रिदशपरिषदं – to devas
यस्मै – for him

When Krishna ate mud, Yashoda asked him to open his mouth and show. The moment she saw the worlds inside his mouth, did she realize that her son was the lord of the universe? She immediately took some mud in her hand, circled it over his head and spit on the mud. (this is a practice followed to ward off the evil eye) I bow to that Krishna for whom Yashoda prayed to the devas.

कविः –5

शूद्रकः
कविः शूद्रकः मृच्छकचिकम् इति प्रसिद्धनाटकस्य रचयिता। अस्य कवेः जन्मादि विषये सप्रमाणयुक्तयः न लब्धाः। मृच्छकटिकनाटकस्य प्रस्तावनाऽधारेण –शिवप्रसादेन अस्मै दृष्टिर्लब्धा, तथा च अयम् अश्वमेधयज्ञं चकार, दशादिकैशतवर्षम् उषित्वा स्वपुत्राय राज्यं दत्वा स्वर्गलोकं जगाम।
ऋग्वेदं सामवेदं गणितमथ कलां वैशिकीं हस्तिशिक्षां
ज्ञात्वा शर्वप्रसादाद्व्यपगततिमिरे चक्षुषी चोपलभ्य ।
राजानं वीक्ष्य पुत्रं परमसमुदयेनाश्वमेधेन चेष्ट्वा
लब्ध्वा चायुः शताब्दं दशदिनसहितं शूद्रकोऽग्निं प्रविष्टः ।।
अस्यैव नाटकस्य प्रस्तावनायाः तृतीयश्लोके अयं ‘द्विजमुख्यतमः कविर्बभूव प्रथितः शूद्रक इत्यगाधसत्तवः इति दत्तमस्ति। पुनः पञ्चमश्लोके ‘क्षितिपालः किल शूद्रको बभूव’ इति पठ्यते। अतः शूद्रको नाम कश्चित् राजा सः एव कविरपि आसीत् इत्येव अस्माभिः कथ्यते किन्तु तस्य जन्मादि विषये न किमपि निर्णीयते।

Poet -5
ShUdraka

It has been the fate of almost all Sanskrit authors to remain completely hidden as far as their personal history is concerned. Among them sUdraka, the author of the drama mrchchakatikam, had the worse fate than most of the Sanskrit dramatists. At least we know that the drama sAkuntalam was written by an author, whose real or assumed name was kAlidAsa. But with respect to the drama mrchchakatikam – the authorship of the drama is still undecided.

The particulars given about his personal history in the prelude of the drama, that he recovered his eye sight through the blessings of lord siva, he performed the Ashvamedha sacrifice, he attained the age of a hundred years and ten days, and that having set his son on the throne he ascended the funeral pyre.

ऋग्वेदं सामवेदं गणितमथ कलां वैशिकीं हस्तिशिक्षां
ज्ञात्वा शर्वप्रसादाद्व्यपगततिमिरे चक्षुषी चोपलभ्य ।
राजानं वीक्ष्य पुत्रं परमसमुदयेनाश्वमेधेन चेष्ट्वा
लब्ध्वा चायुः शताब्दं दशदिनसहितं शूद्रकोऽग्निं प्रविष्टः ।।


The third and fifth verse of the prelude proove that sUdraka was a king and he was the best among the kshatriyas. द्विजमुख्यतमः कविर्बभूव प्रथितः शूद्रक इत्यगाधसत्वः । क्षितिपालः किल शूद्रको बभूव।
Therefore, the conclusion that we can draw from these verses is that sUdraka was a king and was also a poet.
This work ‘mrchchakatikam’ is highly commendable and I should say it is one of the best dramas in Sanskrit. The art of thieving, the art of gambling are very well described by the author.

The drama ‘mrchchakatikam’ was taken as a movie in hindi and the name of the movie is ‘Utsav’.

श्लोकोऽयं मह्यं रोचते – 22

के
केनाभ्यसूया पदकाङ्क्षिणा ते नितान्तदीर्घैर्जनिता तपोभिः ।
यावद्भवत्याहितसायकस्य मत्कार्मुकस्यास्य निदेशवर्ती ।। (3, 4)

kenābhyasūyā padakāṅkṣiṇā te nitāntadīrghairjanitā tapobhiḥ|
yāvadbhavati āhitasāyakasya matkārmukasyāsya nideśavartī||

तारकासुरस्य पीडाम् असह्यमानाः देवाः ब्रह्मदेवस्य समीपं जग्मुः। सोऽपि ब्रह्मदेवः, ‘शिवपार्वत्योः तनयः कुमारः एव तम् असुरं हनिष्यति’ इत्युवाच। ततः, सदा तपसि आसक्तस्य परमशिवस्य मनः तपसः बहिः आनयनार्थं, मन्मथः देवैः आहूतः। मन्मथस्तु इन्द्रः महेन्द्रपदवीं रक्षणायैव आत्मानम् आहूतवानिति मत्वा – ‘हे राजन् यः तपसा भवतः पदवीं लब्धुम् इच्छति सः इदानीमेव मम बाणस्य लक्ष्यं भविष्यति ‘ इत्यवदत् ।

The above verse is from the third canto of the mahAkavyam kumArasabhavam written by mahAkavi kAlidAsa.

The story of kumArasambhavam is: pArvatI, by doing severe penance, marries lord shiva. To them was born kumara or subrahmanya, who destroys the asura tAraka and releases the devas from his tortures.

The context here is: The devas, unable to bear the torture of tAraka, seek brahmas help to save them. Brahma replied that kumara, who will be born to siva and pAravtI, can only destroy the asura. But siva is completely involved in meditation and he is totally disinterested in pArvatI. So in order to bring him out of meditation indra calls manmatha or cupid. But manmatha, unaware of the situation, thinks that indra called him to protect his kingship and says –‘Oh! indra tell me who is desire of taking your position by performing severe penance. With the help of my bow and arrow I will stop his penance and make him a slave of love.’

पद-काङ्क्षिणा- one who desires to take your place, केन – by whom, नितान्त-दीर्घैः- prolonged, तपोभिः- by the penances, ते – for you, अभ्यसूया - jealous, जनिता- occurred, आहित-सायकस्य – that which is ready with an arrow, अस्य-मत्कार्मुकस्य- my bows, निदेश-वर्ती- aim, यावत् भवति – he will become.

Manmatha or the god of love has a bow made of sugarcane and has five arrow of flowers. Whenever a rishi, rAkshasa or whoever does a severe penance, their penance and meditation will be disturbed by the devas by sending manmatha. But here, when manmatha hits shiva with his arrow of flowers, immediately the next moment manmatha was turned into ashes by the mere sight of shiva.

A person strong at heart cannot be disturbed by anything or anybody and it is the mind that controls the sense organs.

शास्त्रं वदति-16

Saastram speaks – 16

चतुर्थे मासि कर्तव्यं शिशोर्निष्क्रमणं गृहात् ।
षष्ठे अन्नप्राशनं मासि यद्वा इष्टं मङ्गलं कुले ।। (2, 34)

caturthe māsi kartavyaṁ śiśorniśkramaṇaṁ gṛhāt|
ṣaṣṭhe annaprāśanaṁ māsi yadvā iṣṭhaṁ maṅgalaṁ kule||

The above sloka is from the second chapter of manu smriti.

A Child should be taken out of the house only during the fourth month from the day of the birth. On the sixth month the annaprAshana or the first feeding of rice should be done. Any other auspicious ceremony can be conducted optionally according to one’s family custom.

गृहात् – from the house, शिशोर्निष्क्रमणं – child can leave or taken out, चतुर्थे – fourth, मासि- month, कर्तव्यं – should be done.
षष्ठे – sixth, मासि – month, अन्नप्राशनं – first feeding of rice. यद्वा – optionally, मङ्गलं –auspicious things can be done , इष्टं कुले – according to the family custom.

p.s. On those days children are delivered at home.

प्रेमस्वरूपः - 6

भक्तिं दृष्ट्वानुपमितरसां नारदो विस्मितोऽभूत्
किं वा वक्ष्ये विरलवचनैः गोपिकाप्रेम तादृक्।
ताभिः सार्धं गहनयमुनातीरकुञ्जे रमन्तं
प्रेमापूर्णं नवजलधरश्यामलं देवमीडे॥६॥

bhaktiṁ dṛṣṭvā anupamitarasaṁ nārado vismito'bhūt
kiṁ vā vakṣye viralavacanaiḥ gopikāprema tādṛk|
tābhiḥ sārdhaṁ gahanayamunātīrakuñje ramantam
premāpūrṇaṁ navajaladharaśyāmalaṁ devamīḍe ||6||

भक्तिं दृष्ट्वा – seeing their devotion
अनुपमितरसं – incomparable essence
नारदो विस्मितोऽभूत् – Sage Narada was surprised
किं वा वक्ष्ये – what can I say
विरलवचनैः – with insufficient words
गोपिकाप्रेम तादृक् – such is the love of gopis
ताभिः सार्धं – with them
गहनयमुनातीरकुञ्जे – in the deep groves on the banks of yamuna
रमन्तं – one who sports

Seeing their incomparable bhakti, when even Sage Narada was amazed, what can I say of the gopis’ love for Krishna. I bow to that Krishna who plays with the gopis in the banks of Yamuna.

In नारदभक्तिसूत्र, Sage Narada shows the gopis as example for the highest form of bhakti who forget themselves being completely immersed in Krishna –

“नारदस्तु तदर्पिताखिलाचारत तद्विस्मरणे परमव्याकुलेति।” (नारदभक्तिसूत्राणि – ch. 2 su. 19)
“यथा व्रजगोपिकानाम्।” (नारदभक्तिसूत्राणि – ch. 2 su. 21)

श्लोकोऽयं मह्यं रोचते – 21

कृ
कृमिकुलचितं लालाक्लिन्नं विगन्धि जुगुप्सितं
निरुपमरसरीत्या खादन्खरास्थि निरामिषम् ।
सुरपतिमपि श्वा पार्श्वस्थं विलोक्य न शङ्कते
न हि गणयति क्षुद्रो जन्तुः परिग्रहफल्गुताम्।।
(नीतिशतकम्- 9)

kṛmikulacitaṁ lālāklinnaṁ vigandhi jugupsitaṁ
nirupamarasarītyā khādankharāsthi nirāmiṣam|
surapatimapi śvā pārśvasthaṁ vilokya na śaṅkate
na hi gaṇayati kṣudro jantuḥ parigrahaphalgutām||

शुनकः, कृमिकुलैः व्याप्तं दन्तान्तर्जलात् आर्द्रं दुर्गन्धि जुगुप्सितं मांसलेशशून्यं रासभकीकसं, निरुपमस्वादप्रीत्या भक्षयन्, अन्तिकस्थं सुरपतिमिन्द्रमपि दृष्ट्वा न लज्जते। यतः नीचजन्तुः स्वीकृतवस्तुनः तुच्छत्वं न मनुते।

The above sloka is from Bhartrhari’s nIti satakam.

A dog, cracking with matchless relish and eagerness, a piece of fleshless bone of an ass, full of worms, moist with spittle, of a sickening evil odour, and therefore loathsome does not mind even the lord of gods (Indra) standing by him. For a mean creature does not mind the worthlessness of the object in its possession.

श्वा- a dog, निरुपमरसप्रीत्या- with an incomparable taste, कृमिकुलचितं - covered by worms, लालाक्लिन्नं – wet due to saliva (falling from the dog’s mouth), विगन्धि- bad smell, जुगुप्सितं- disgusting, निरामिषं- without any meat , खारास्थि- bone of an ass, खादन्- was eating or relishing, पार्श्वस्थं- standing beside, सुरपतिमपि- even the indra, विलोक्य – after seeing, (the dog) न शङ्कते- does not care.
क्षुद्रो- mean, जन्तुः - creature, परिग्रहे- things obtained, फल्गुताम्- worthlessness , न हि गणयति – does not mind.

मञ्जुरामायणम् – 5

अपि भानुकुलं सनातनं कलयन्ती तमसा तिरस्कृतम् ।
जननीति ममेयमुत्थिता सहसा काचन कालयामिनी ।।

api bhānukulaṁ sanātanaṁ kalayantī tamasā tiraskṛtām|
jananīti mameyamutthitā sahasā kacana kālayāminī||

काचन कालयामिनी = One Kala raatri
सहसा = Suddenly
उत्थिता = sprang up
ममेयम् जननीति (इव) = in the form of my mother
तिरस्कृतम् = covered
तमसा = by darkeness
कलयन्ती = to destroy
सनातनं = ancient
भानुकुलं = solar dynasty

Bharatha after reaching to Ayodhya from his uncle’s place, heard the
news of the death of Dasaratha and the departure of Rama to forest.
And also he heard about the two boons, asked by his mother.

Then he says, (bharata cried) “one kAlarAtrI suddenly sprang up in
the form of my mother to envelope in darkeness, the ancient clan of
the sun - Suryavamsa.


Note: In the end of each kalpa the last night is called kAlarAtrI. It
is said to swallow the sun, along with the earth. Even the kAlarAtrI
can swallow only one sun, but here It seems to have destroyed the
entire clan of Sun.

श्लोकोऽयं मह्यं रोचते – 20

कू
कूटकायमपहाय नो वपुर्बिभ्रतस्त्वमसि वीक्ष्य विस्मिता ।
आप्तुमाकृतिमतो मनीषितां विद्यया हृदि तवाप्युदीयताम्।। ( 14, 94)

kūṭakāyamapahāya vapuḥ bibhrataḥ tvamasi vīkṣya vismitāḥ|
āptum ākṛtimato manīṣitāṁ vidyayā hṛdi tavāpi udīyatām||

हे भैमी, स्वेच्छामात्रेण मायानलशरीरं त्यक्त्वा निजं वपुः धारयतः अस्मान् वीक्ष्य त्वं विस्मिताऽसि। अतः स्वेच्छानुसारं शरीरं प्राप्तुं, तवापि शक्तिः उत्पद्यताम् ।

This is the 94th sloka from the fourteenth canto of naishadIya charitam of srI harsha.
The context here is: the swayamwara of DamayantI takes place. The devas Indra, varuNa, agni and yama went in the disguise of nala. But DamayantI correctly identifies nala and chooses him as her husband. The devas blessed her with the following words- ‘Oh DamayantI you look astonished to see us taking our original form discarding our disguise. You will have the boon to transform yourself into anything which you desire.’

कूटकायमपहाय - discarding the disguise, बिभ्रतः – taking the , वपुः – original form , नः – us , वीक्ष्य- seeing, हे भैमी – oh DamayantI, त्वम्- you , विस्मिताऽसि- (you are ) astonished,

अतो - Therefore ,विद्यया – by the knowledge, हृदि – in your mind, मनीषितां - desired, आकृतिम्- form, आप्तुम् – to get, तवापि- for you also, उदीयताम् – let it happen.

The poet srI Harsha beautifully explains that the greatness of devas lie in their ability to bestow virtues on ordinary people.

प्रेमस्वरूपः - 5

स्वाम्यादेशं हननपरमप्याहरत् त्वत्समीपे
सोऽपश्यत् त्वाम् उरगशयनं कीदृगक्रूरभाग्यम्।
हेतुस्तत्र स्फटिकविमलं मानसं पश्यसि त्वं
प्रेमापूर्णं नवजलधरश्यामलं देवमीडे॥५॥
svāmyādeśaṁ hananaparamapyāharat tvatsamīpe
so'paśyat tvām uragaśayanaṁ kīdṛgakrūrabhāgyam|
hetustatra sphaṭikavimalaṁ mānasaṁ paśyasi tvaṁ
premāpūrṇaṁ navajaladharaśyāmalaṁ devamīḍe ||5||

स्वाम्यादेशं – lord’s order
हननपरमपि – although it was to kill
आहरत् – brought
त्वत्समीपे – to you
सोऽपश्यत् – he saw
त्वां – you
उरगशयनं – lying on a serpent bed
कीदृक् अक्रूरभाग्यम् – What a fortune for Akrura
हेतुस्तत्र – the reason there is
पश्यसि त्वं – you see
स्फटिकविमलं मानसं – crystal clear and pure heart

Knowing very well that Kamsa’s orders were meant to bring your death, Akrura brought them to you. Despite this, how fortunate was Akrura to have seen you as Vishnu under the river! The reason there is that you see only the pure heart which is clear as a crystal. I bow to that lord who is filled with love and dark like a new rain cloud.

प्रेमस्वरूपः - 4

योत्स्ये नाहं मम गुरुजनैः सार्धमेवं ब्रुवाणम्
पार्थं बोधस्फुरितवचनैः उद्धधार स्वशिष्यम्।
आत्मारामं समरभुवि तं सारथीभूतकृष्णं
प्रेमापूर्णं नवजलधरश्यामलं देवमीडे॥४॥

yotsye nāhaṁ mama gurujanaiḥ sārdhamevaṁ bruvāṇam
pārthaṁ bodhasphuritavacanaiḥ uddhadhāra svaśiṣyam|
ātmārāmaṁ samarabhuvi taṁ sārathībhūtakṛṣṇaṁ
premāpūrṇaṁ navajaladharaśyāmalaṁ devamīḍe ||4||

योत्स्ये नाहं – I will not fight
मम गुरुजनैः सार्धम् – with my gurus
एवं ब्रुवाणम् पार्थं – thus spoke pArtha
बोधस्फुरितवचनैः – with enlightening words
उद्धधार – uplifted
स्वशिष्यम् – his disciple
आत्मारामं – one who revels in the Self
समरभुवि - on the battlefield
तं सारथीभूतकृष्णं – that krishna who became a charioteer

With enlightening words, you uplifted the spirits of your disciple Arjuna who said, “I will not fight with my preceptors”. I bow to that Krishna who revels in the Self, yet, became charioteer for Arjuna on the battlefield.